Bio of Jay and Tina Clark, Ed Villavert and Jon Close, as given by Jay Clark:
They are from San Diego, and have been in Yuma for seven years. Jay is a retired university professor, having taught philosophy and reigious studies. Tina was an Asian studies professor, and an archeologist and preservationist, and most recently a cook. Ed and Jon are former philosophy students of Jay. Ed is a computer engineer and Jon is a Shakespearean actor, as well as an english and history person. All four are opening the Gateway Prep Academy. It lasts two years, the first where students learn philosophy and classics, the second either literature or theatre. Tina is opening a cooking school this month (Jan 2006). She mentioned stories about cooking for Gray Davis, as well as the Waltons (owners of Walmart). They have been working on historic projects in Yuma for seven years. She needs them to be economically viable, as well as historic. Jon speaks a little spanish, and the others are learning.

Notes from talking to Don Garate at dinner:

They had a practice called "tarde diada"- when Juan Bautista had more than a day between water holes, they would do two partial days, leaving at 2pm, marching until dark, and setting up a dry camp. They would finish the march the next day in a similar fashion, at a water source. After Yuma, they split into three groups, because the water holes weren't big enough.
They brought three hundred beef cattle, packed beans, wheat and corn. They did not have rice. A cow would be slaughtered every day or every week to eat (the literature disagrees).
Anza did not speak spanish well- he spoke Basque.

Partial transcription of him speaking as Anza:
"You want me to speak English in New Spain?

Why do you want to follow me? You are going to California? What nut tree are you coming out of [note: "Nogales" translates to "nut trees"- we told him we came from Nogales]? It is a long way without water. You got horses? There are sand dunes out there if you go straight. We split up into three groups, so we could split up the water sources, and they would not run dry.

New England? That is why we took a group up to San Francisco, so Spain would have it, and it would not be New England.

Yuma? Those are the people who live here. They swim like fish. As we crossed the river, some of our people would fall off, and the Yuma would hop in and carry them to the bank before there was any health problems. I don't swim at all- I was raised in the desert.

San Francisco bay is glorious. One man with a gun could keep anyone out, and all the ships in the Spanish fleet- in the world!- could fit in the bay. Beautiful country in California, different than the desert- there is water and swamps. Some Sonorans did not come with me to California, now their friends will be rich and they will be poor and sorry.

We would never have gotten across the Colorado River without the Yuma. There are Indians all the way. Out of Arizona, you no longer have to worry about the Apaches. They stole our horses, and though we would go and try to get them back, they would have eaten the biggest ones. All the Indians in California though are very nice. The chief of the Yuma wants to meet in Mexico City with the Viceroy.

I grew up in Sonora, in New Spain. I was born in Cuquiarachi, near Fronteras- which was the Presidio for all of Sonora. I have the same name as my father had- he was the captain of Fronteras, and was killed by Apaches when I was three. My brother in law and brother had a ranch a little south of Nogales, where I was raised. All my soldiers speak Spanish, none speak English.

We ate beans and tortillas. We had three hundred cattle, and butcher one a week, then we would eat carne asada.

We went up to San Francisco to try to establish a Presidio on this huge bay we had just discovered. All the soldiers we took had families with them. We would not take anyone with us who did not have a family, so that when we got to San Francisco we would have a colony right away.

Why does Spain have a right to the land? Spain has a right to the land because the Pope gave it to us.

Day 9